Hard and brittle materials refer to materials with high hardness and high brittleness. usually, non-conductors or semiconductors, such as various stone materials, glass, silicon crystal, quartz crystal, cemented carbide, ceramics, etc. With the development of science and technology and modern industry, the application fields of hard and brittle materials are expanding, and the processing technology of hard and brittle materials is also developing. Among all kinds of hard and brittle materials processing methods, cutting processing occupies an important position. For example, in the processing of architectural decorative plates and precision parts made of rock materials, sawing is the first process of machining, and the cost of sawing accounts for more than 50% of the entire processing cost.
Diamond abrasives are usually made into cutting tools by sintering or electroplating. The cutting process of diamond tools is similar to grinding, but due to the influence of the material, the processing mechanism of hard and brittle materials such as rocks and ceramics is different from that of metal processing, and the processing process is more complicated. Since diamond cutting tools were first used in stone cutting, there are many studies on the mechanism of diamond cutting stone. Scholars at home and abroad have conducted long-term research on the processing mechanism of diamond tools for sawing granite: from the early application of rock fracture theory under indenter intrusion, the observation method of single particle diamond scratched surface morphology, to the comprehensive application of polarized light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Observation of rock surface topography and crack generation and propagation law, using acoustic emission signal to evaluate rock cutting state, etc. However, because the cutting state and cutting process of hard and brittle materials such as rock is very complex, the research on the cutting mechanism has not yet formed a unified understanding.
Similar to the research on grinding, people first studied the mechanism of action between a single diamond particle and stone during cutting. Early experimental studies have shown that when single-grain diamond cuts granite under different conditions, the failure mode of the rock is mainly brittle collapse; at the same time, according to different mineral components, there is still plastic deformation in the rock.